Filtration Water System: Process, Method, Examples


The filtration process is the separation of substances in the laboratory, which is used to dissolve insoluble solid particles from liquids. This process is followed by a sieve or screen of a mechanical device. Several types of filter media can be used to perform this operation. The nature of the filtered sediment and other factors determine which filter media should be used.

The most convenient way to filter is through filter paper or through a filter crucible. It is widely used in industrial and daily use to separate it from suspension or colloidal solutions. The most advanced example is the use of filtration on blood during dialysis.

Common filters used for infiltration are usually made of plastic, fabric or metal mesh and various types of paper.

According to the nature and size of the mixture, there are three main types of filtration:

  • The filter
  • Sieving
  • Tension

Filtration through Filter Paper

Filtration through Filter Paper

Filtration with glass funnels and filter paper is usually a slow process. When the mixture is poured onto the filter paper, the solvent (water) passes through leaving the particles suspended on the filter paper. The filter paper has different pores (pore sizes). The pore size used depends on the size of the particles in the precipitate.

The filter paper should be large enough so that it is filled with one-fourth to one-half sediment at the end of the filtration. In turn, the size of the funnel should be large enough so that its edge is 1 to 2 cm above the top of the paper. If you want to filter easily, the funnel rods must be continuously filled with liquid until the cone has liquid.

The stem of the funnel should be a few inches long so that it extends a few centimeters down until it enters the beaker, and the tip should touch the edge of the beaker. Thus, the spores flow downwards towards the edge of the spatter. The following figure shows the complete filter paper assembly:

Folding of Filter Paper

Folding of filter paper is very important, and the following points should be kept in mind. The paper should be folded twice. The first fold should be along the diameter of the paper. The second seam should not match the edges at all. The paper should be opened in large part.

The thickness of the midway of the cone thus provided is three times the thickness of the midway, and the thickness of the midway a second time, and its top angle is slightly more than 60 degrees. Then you can put the paper in a 60-degree funnel, moisten it with water and press it firmly. If there is no benign suction when the fluid passes through the valve stem, the filtering operation may take a long time. This suction cannot be formed until the paper is slapped tightly on its upper periphery.

Fluted Filter Paper

Fluted filter paper

The use of slanted filter paper can increase the filtration rate through conical funnels. To prepare this paper, ordinary filter paper is folded so that a fan-shaped arrangement is obtained with alternating rise and fall in different layers.

Filtration through filter crucibles

Another convenient method of filtering sediment is suction through a crucible. Generally two types of crucible are used.

Gooch Crucible

Gooch crucible

It is made of porcelain with a perforated floor, with a fixed size pulp or filter paper on the floor. The Gucci crucible can be inserted into a suction filtration device for rapid filtration.

It is useful for filtering precipitates to ignite at high temperatures. If its holes are covered with asbestos pads, they can be used to filter solutions that react with paper, such as concentrated HCl and KMnO4 solutions.

Examples of Filtration in our daily life

In daily life, we can see many examples of filtration, such as juice pouring, oil filter and coffee preparation. The 15 filtering examples are as follows:

  • Preparation of infusions
  • Pasta cooking
  • Air filters
  • Preparation of coffee
  • Juice pouring
  • Water filters
  • The filter for cigarettes
  • Oil filters
  • Sewer grates
  • Stone pots or filters
  • Pool nets
  • Filter paper
  • Sifting the flour
  • Dialysis
  • Sieving the cement

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