Mitochondria have two membranes, one outer membrane and an inner membrane with deep inner folds. The inner membrane is impermeable to most molecules and surrounds the vacuum containing the mitochondrial matrix.
Mitochondria are the power plants for cells, which break down nutrients and produce energy. The matrix plays a vital role in power generation because it is where the citric acid or Krebs cycle occurs. The matrix is a dense sticky substance and also contains the DNA of the ribosome and mitochondrial DNA.
Citric Acid Cycle
Mitochondria produce energy for cells by breaking down nutrients in food into high-energy molecules called adenosine triphosphate or ATP. The first step in cell metabolism occurs in the cytosol, and nutrients derived from glucose are converted into pyruvate molecules. The pyruvate is transferred to the mitochondrial matrix. The mitochondrial matrix contains citric acid enzymes and chemicals, which is the first stage of mitochondrial energy production.
The pyruvate is oxidized to acetyl-CoA, enters the citric acid cycle, and is metabolized in carbon dioxide, NADH, and FADH2. Fatty acids are also transferred from the cytosol of the cell to the mitochondrial matrix and enter the citric acid cycle after being oxidized to the acetyl-CoA. Next, NADH and FADH are used by an electronic transmission system embedded in the inner mitochondrial membrane to generate ATP that meets the needs of the cell.
The matrix also contains mitochondrial DNA, which makes the mitochondria partially independent. Circular DNA mitochondria, such as bacterial DNA. It contains only 37 genes, some of which encode the enzymes required for cellular energy or ATP production, while others are DNA RNA genes.
Many proteins required by the synthesis and frequency of mitochondria and enzymes in energy production are not encoded by mitochondrial DNA, but by genes in the nucleus. Mitochondrial gene mutations can cause a variety of diseases, such as Leper genetic optic neuropathy, which can cause blindness in humans.
The mitochondrial matrix contains all the mechanisms needed to translate all genes in the mitochondrial genome into functional proteins. Genetic materials are translated into ribosome molecules or complexes from RNA transport, t-RNA, ribosomal RNA, r-RNA. This RNA uses a genetic code that is slightly different from the cytoplasmic RNA. The mitochondrial DNA encodes only about 22 R-R, but these are the only RNAs that can translate mitochondrial RNA (M RNA) into proteins.
Most of the proteins in the mitochondrial matrix are not derived from the mitochondrial genes but from the nuclear genes. Proteins are transferred from the cytoplasm through the outer and inner membranes to the matrix. They include ribosome proteins, proteins required for mitochondrial replication and transcription, enzymes for the citric acid cycle, and some proteins that play a role in the electronic transport chain of the inner mitochondrial membrane.
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