Biological organs refer to a group of tissues in a living organism that have been adapted to perform specific functions. In higher animals, organs are divided into organ systems. For example, the esophagus, stomach, and liver are parts of the digestive system.
Examples of Organs
In higher animals, there are usually 10 organs: skin, bones, muscles, nerves, endocrine (hormones), digestion, breathing, circulation, excretion, and reproduction. These systems gradually appeared in lower animals and reached their full complexity and functional expertise in higher animals. In plants, the main organs are the stem, root, and leaves, which help to nourish all plants and reproductive organs (such as flowers, seeds, and spores). Like animals, these organs are responsible for the basic life-supporting functions of the organism.
Except for less specialized animals such as animals, all animals have specialized tissues classified as organs. There are 78 different organs in the human body. The largest organ is the skin, and the smallest organ is the pineal gland, which produces melatonin. Some organs are necessary for survival. These are called vital organs. There are five important organs of man. Without the brain, heart, liver, kidneys, and lungs, they would not survive. (A person can live with one kidney instead of two or one lungs, but they must have a functioning kidney or lung to survive.)
Other organs also play an important role, but a person can live without them. For example, if a person has colon cancer and undergoes a total gastrostomy, their entire stomach is removed and their esophagus is surgically attached to their small intestine. They may face some difficulties and may have to change their diet by eating less food and taking nutritional supplements, but they can still digest food well in the intestines, so they may have no stomach. Other examples of non-essential organs include the bladder, spleen, and gall bladder.
Types of Organ
Human body parts are divided into organ systems according to the functions they perform. Man has 11 different parts. Here are some examples of all organ systems and organs found in each system:
- Integumentary (skin, hair, nails)
- Skeletal (bones)
- Muscular (smooth, cardiac, and skeletal muscles)
- Circulatory (heart, arteries, veins)
- Respiratory (lungs, diaphragm, larynx)
- Digestive (stomach, intestines, liver)
- Urinary (kidneys, ureters, bladder)
- Immune (lymph nodes, bone marrow, thymus)
- Nervous (brain, spinal cord, nerves)
- Endocrine (pituitary gland, thyroid, adrenals)
- Reproductive (penis, vagina, prostate, uterus)
Cells, Tissues, Organs, Organ Systems
In multicellular organisms, there are four distinct levels of tissue, and organs constitute one of these levels. From the simplest to the most complex, living things are made up of cells, tissues, organs, and organ systems. Units constitute the most basic level of organization; Cells are an integral part of biology. The second is an organization. Tissues are groups of cells that work together with similar structures and functions.
The four tissues in the human body are muscle, epithelium, connective tissue, and nerve tissue. As mentioned earlier, organs are groups of tissues that work together to perform specific functions. The organ system represents the highest level of the organism. They are made up of organs that cooperate with each other to perform specific tasks. For example, the digestive system includes organs such as the esophagus, stomach, small intestine, and large intestine, and all of these organs play a role in the digestion of food.