Sperm Cells Function, Life Cycle, & Facts



Sperm is a male germ cell or gamete, in the form of a heterosexual partner for sexual reproduction (where there are larger “female” germ cells and smaller “male” (germ cells). Animals produce motile sperm whose tail is called a flagellum, which is called sperm, while some red algae and fungi produce inactive sperm cells, which are called sperm. The pollen of flowering plants contains motile sperm, while some basic plants such as ferns and gymnosperms have motile sperm.



Sperm cells are formed in a process called spermatogenesis. In amniotic animals (reptiles and mammals), sperm cells are in the semicircular tubes of the testes. This process involves several successive sperm cell precursors that separate sperm cells from spermatogenesis. Then, spermatids undergo meiosis, which reduces the number of chromosomes by half to produce sperm. Then, the sperm forms a tail or flagella in the animal’s body to form mature motive sperm cells. The entire process continues, and it takes about 3 months from beginning to end.

Sperm cells cannot divide and have a finite lifespan, but after fusion with egg cells during fertilization, new organisms begin to develop, starting with an all-powerful zygote. Human sperm cells are haploid, so its 23 chromosomes, together with the 23 chromosomes of female eggs, can form diploid cells. In mammals, sperm is deposited in the epididymis and released from the penis during ejaculation into a fluid called semen.

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Life Cycle

Did You Know Sperm Takes About 74 Days to Mature? Sperm is a living cell in the male body. During the entire development cycle, the rest of the body will be affected by any condition. Extreme temperatures, smoking, drug use, and poor diet can affect sperm quality. Therefore, men who want to increase their chances of conception should consider changing healthy lifestyles. SGF’s reproductive urologist and male fertility specialist Dr. Corey Tariku told her patients that a “heart-healthy” lifestyle is a “sperm-friendly” lifestyle: eat well, exercise regularly, and regularly to maintain a healthy weight, avoid smoking and in moderation Use Drinking alcohol and caffeine are wise choices. Due to the life cycle of sperm production, once you change your lifestyle (such as quitting smoking), healthy sperm takes about 2 to 3 months to appear in ejaculation.

Sperm Life Cycle

How Is Sperm Produced And Released In Current Condition

It should also be noted that too much heat on or near the testicle can inhibit sperm production. The quantity and quality of sperms can be adversely affected by long visits to hot baths, hot tubs, and saunas or steam. Also, please take care not to place the laptop directly on your lap, but keep a pillow or book between them.

It is also important that men should consider using drugs to treat “low T” (testosterone) to address symptoms such as lack of energy or loss of libido, which actually decreases sperm count. Maybe the reason. If the use of drugs to treat low testosterone is considered, men should always be under the guidance of a doctor.

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Sperm Structure

Although their common shapes include head, body, and tail, not all sperm cells are necessarily identical.

Due to various abnormalities, their size and shape may vary, and other differences can be seen in any part of the cell (head, body, tail).

Sperm Structure

Normal sperm will have the following characteristics:

  • Smooth oval head – The surface of a normally made sperm head has a smooth and resembles an oval.
  • The diameter of the sperm head is 2.5 to 3.5 um and the length is 4.0 to 5.5 um (um = micrometer). This results in an aspect ratio of 1.50 to 1.70
  • They have a well-developed acrosome, covering 40% to 70% of the oval head.
  • The slender middle part (body), almost the same length as the head
  • The tail is thin, approximately 45μm in length.

Adaptations of Sperm Cell

Tightly packed: There are about 70 mitochondria in the central part of the sperm, which are sources of energy (ATP). When the cell moves to the female gametes, it provides sufficient energy for propulsion. Once the head of the sperm enters the egg, the mitochondria of the sperm cell are released.

Basic amines: Sperm contains many basic amines, such as cadaver and spermine. These amines are responsible for protecting the alkaline (slightly alkaline) nature of sperm semen. Assuming that the vaginal canal is acidic, the amine can protect DNA from denaturation, thereby promoting successful fertilization.

Acrosome:  As noted above, the acrosome plays an important role in the chemotaxis identification of target female gametes, and contains lysosome enzymes that can degrade the egg’s thick membrane. Therefore, the acrosome helps to promote fertilization.

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Types Of Sperm

Sperm Production Process

What Is Sperm Made Of

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