Carbohydrates are sugar, starch, and fiber found in fruits, grains, vegetables, and dairy products. Although often disturbed in a stylish diet, carbohydrates (a basic food) are essential for a healthy diet.
Paige Smithers, a registered nutritionist in Utah, said: “Carbohydrates are macronutrients, meaning they are one of three main ways that the human body obtains energy or calories.” The American Diabetes Association reported that carbohydrates are the body’s main energy source. They are called carbohydrates because they contain carbon, hydrogen, and oxygen at the chemical level.
Smokers stated that there are three macronutrients: carbohydrate, protein, and fat. Rich nutrition is necessary for the normal functioning of the body, and the human body requires a lot of nutrition. All macronutrients must be obtained through diet, the human body cannot produce macronutrients on its own.
Importance or Functions of Carbohydrates
Carbohydrates are abundant in living organisms. They have the following importance:
- They are present in all living things. They are present in all parts of the cell.
- They form various structures, such as wood, cotton, and paper cellulose.
- They act as storage compounds such as starch, which is found in grains and tubers (potatoes). Carbohydrates and sucrose are also present in carbohydrates.
- They are the main source of energy in the cell.
- Some carbohydrates make up the cell walls of plants and microorganisms.
- Carbohydrates combine with proteins and lipids to form glycoproteins and glycolipids. These are called conjugate compounds. These compounds act in the extracellular matrix of animal and bacterial cells. Conjugates also have a structural role in biofuels.
Function of carbohydrates
Carbohydrates provide fuel for energy for the central nervous system and muscles. According to Iowa State University, they prevent protein from being used as an energy source and promote fat metabolism.
In addition, “carbohydrates are important for brain function,” Smithers said. They “affect emotion, memory, etc., and brisk energy.” In fact, the RDA of carbohydrates is based on the amount of carbohydrates the brain needs to function.
Two recent studies published in Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences also link carbohydrate to decision making. In the study, people who eat a high-carbohydrate breakfast are less likely to share it when playing an “ultimatum game” than those who eat a high-protein breakfast. Scientists speculate that this may be due to baseline dopamine levels, which will be higher after carbohydrate intake. This does not mean that carbohydrates are equal to what you want to express, but it emphasizes how different types of food intake affect cognition and behavior.
Classification of Carbohydrates
Carbohydrates are also called “sugars”. The Chinese word comes from the Greek “saccharin”. This means sugar. Sugar is considered a unit of carbohydrate (monomer). Carbohydrates are divided into three categories:
- Monosaccharide (Carbohydrate containing only one sugar)
- Oligo Saccharides (3 to 10 sugars such as carbohydrates, such as dextrin)
- Polysaccharide (carbohydrate with more than 10 sugars)
- Disaccharides: They are made up of two monosaccharide molecules, such as sucrose, lactose, and maltose.
They display the following characters:
- They are simple sugars.
- They taste very sweet.
- They are easily soluble in water. They cannot be hydrolyzed into ordinary sugars.
- Chemically, they can be polyhydroxy aldehydes or ketones.
- Except for one carbon atom, all other carbon atoms of the Monosaccharides have a hydroxyl group (OH). Carbon without OH groups will form aldehydes or ketones.
- Sugars with aldehyde groups are called aldoses, and sugars with keto groups are called ketos.
2. Oligo Saccharides
Oligosaccharides have the following characteristics:
This taste is not very sweet.
They are hardly soluble in water.
They produce 2 to 10 monosaccharides when hydrolyzed.
The covalent bond formed between two monosaccharides is called a glycosidic bond. Oligosaccharides can be:
Disaccharide: Oligosaccharides giving two monosaccharides are called disaccharides.
Trisaccharides: Oligosaccharides giving three monosaccharides are called trisaccharides, and so on.
Polysaccharides have the following characteristics:
- They are tasteless.
- They are slightly soluble in water.
- They are the most complex carbohydrates.
- They are the most abundant in nature.
- They are usually branched or uninfected.
- Many monosaccharides are linked by glycosidic bonds and come from polysaccharides.
- They have a high molecular weight.
Examples of Polysaccharides
Some biologically important polysaccharides are starch, glycogen, cellulose, dextrin, agar, pectin, and chitin.
- It is found in fruits, grains, seeds and tubers.
- It is the main source of animal carbohydrates.
- It produces many glucose molecules during hydrolysis.
- Starch iodine turns blue.
- There are two types of starch:
Amylose: Amylose consists of amylose glucose chain. It is soluble in hot water.
Amylopectin: Contains branched chains. Insoluble in hot or cold water.
- It is also called animal starch. It is the main storage complex for animals.
- It is present in the liver and muscles. It is also present in all animal cells.
- Not water-soluble.
- The color of the iodine is red.
- After hydrolysis, glucose is produced.
- It is the most abundant carbohydrate in nature.
- Cotton is a pure form of cellulose.
- It is the main component of the plant cell wall.
- It is highly soluble in water.
- Hydrolysis produces glucose molecules.
- The human digestive system cannot digest glycogen. Because microorganisms (bacteria, yeast, protozoa) are digested in herbs. These microorganisms are present in the digestive system of herbs. These microorganisms secrete an enzyme called cellulose. Cellulose digests starch.
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