Biology is the natural science that studies life and living organisms, including their physical structure, chemical processes, molecular interactions, physiological mechanisms, development, and evolution.
It’s derived from the Greek words “bios” (life) and “logos” (study). Biologists study the structure, function, growth, origin, evolution, and distribution of living organisms.
Fields and levels of Biological Organization
These are many Biology Fields Like:
It is a new modern branch of biology in which the structure and function of these molecules are studied, and these structures and functions contribute to the biological processes of living organisms, such as nucleic acids, genetic structure, function, protein, and protein. It is the basis of genetic engineering.
“The study of the molecular structure of an organism, its cells, or its organelles, is called molecular biology.”
“It involves studying microorganisms such as viruses, bacteria, microalgae, and parasites.”
“It studies the environment and its impact on living things.”
Research into the relationship between organisms and the environment is called environmental biology. In this branch, the interaction between living organisms and their inorganic and organic environments has been studied. He also studied the relationship between these interactions and human activities.
“It involves studying living organisms found in sea water or sea water. It also deals with the physical and chemical properties of its environment.”
Fresh Water Biology
“Examines the life in freshwater, such as rivers, lakes, ponds, streams, etc.” and the physical and chemical properties of its surrounding environment and its impact on life.
“It studies parasites, the life cycle, methods of disease transmission and interaction with the host.”
It covers all aspects of human life, such as anatomy, physiology, healthy genetics, evolution, etc.
The study of humans is called human biology. In this branch we study structure, function, tissue, anatomy, morphology, evolution, genetics, cell biology, and human ecology.
“She studies the social activities of specific animals in the population, especially humans. She is also concerned about different types of behaviors that are either inherited from parents or have evolved in the body because of their experience.”
This is a very recent branch of biology. It is dedicated to researching engineering tools and techniques to improve life and solve problems related to living things, especially those related to humans.
Living organisms are used in manufacturing and service industries, and their systems or processes are called biotechnology.
Biological research at various levels is called biological organization. The biological level ranges from the basic level of subatomic and atomic particles to the same biological level. Next, study society, population and the whole world. Creatures must perform various complex operations. Therefore, biological organization is not simple. This is very complicated.
These processes distinguish living things from non-living things. Organisms have regulatory mechanisms. This mechanism interacts with the environment. Therefore, it preserves the structure and function of the organism.
The elements present in living things are called biological elements. Living organisms are made up of biological materials called protests. Hundreds of chemical reactions take place in the forehead of this simple organism. There are 92 chemical elements. Only 16 elements are called biological elements.
The characteristics of these 16 types of biological elements differ from those of non-living ones. Because of these special features, these elements form the basis of life. There are two types of these biological elements:
A large number of elements in the body are called the main biological elements. These are only 6 biological elements. They make up 99% of the human body. They are oxygen (65%), carbon (18%), hydrogen (10%), nitrogen (3%), calcium (2%) and phosphorous (1%).
Elements in small amounts in the body are called trace biological elements. These are 10 biological elements. They are potassium (0.35%), sulfur (0.25%), chlorine (0.15%), sodium (0.15%), magnesium (0.05%), iron (0.004%), copper, manganese, zinc, and iodine.
Levels of Biological Organization
The organisms are highly developed and well organized. This well-organized organization has different levels, called biological tissues.
The levels of biological tissues are as follows:
- Atomic and subatomic levels
- Molecular level
- Levels of cells and organelles
- Level of regulation
- Device and device level
- individual and the whole body
1. Atomic and subatomic levels
This is the lowest level of biological tissue. The smallest molecules of elements with elemental properties called atoms. Atoms contain subatomic particles, such as protons, electrons, neutrons, and positrons, etc.
2. Molecular level
When the atoms join, the molecules are formed in the cell. These molecules combine to form compounds.
Types of Molecular:
- Simple molecule
These molecules are small and naturally shaped in a systematic way. They may have low molecular weight. Simple inorganic molecules are carbon dioxide and water.
Simple organic molecules are sugar, glycerin, fatty acids, amino acids, purine, and pyridine.
- Complex molecule
These are larger molecules with higher molecular weights. These are called large molecules.
In living organisms, complex organic molecules are made up of simple organic molecules. There are three types of complex molecules:
- Organic molecule
Molecules containing both carbon and hydrogen are called organic molecules.
- Inorganic particles
Carbon and hydrogen-free molecules are called inorganic molecules together.
Living organisms usually consist of a large number of microscopic particles and large molecules of hundreds of different species. Some of the most important and abundant organic molecules in living organisms are glucose, amino acids, fatty acids, glycerol, and nucleotides (such as ATP, ADP, and AMP).
3. Organ and Organ System Level
A group of different tissues that perform the same function is called an organ. Members perform specific functions. For example, the stomach is a member. It digests protein food. It has different tissues: its secretory epithelial tissue secretes stomach juice. Muscle tissue contains the wall of the stomach. So the food is mixed with the enzymes.
- Organ Formation in Animals
Cells form different organs in animals. These members operate effectively. Creating an animal organ is more complicated. Animals are organic organs like the digestive system. Various organs of the muscular system complete a process like digestion. Animal organ systems have more functions and activities than plants.
- Organ formation in plants
Compared to animals, plants have less organ hierarchy. There is no organ formation system in the plant. In general, the plant body can be divided into genital roots, stems, leaves, and structures. These structures perform specific functions. Root repair factories. It also stores nutrients and absorbs minerals. Buds or stems support all plants. Food synthesis horizontally. Flowers or other reproductive structures are used for reproduction.
4. Tissue Level
A group of similar cells with the same origin and perform the same function called tissue. Each organization performs specific functions, such as
- Muscle tissues are used for shrinking.
- The glandular tissue is used for secretion.
- Wood texture fabric is used to deliver water.
- Stomach tissue is used to transport food. This is sugar.
5. Level of cells and organelles
Different numbers of micro and large molecules organize themselves in a special way and thus play the role of cells and their organelles. For simple organisms, such as bacteria and most organisms, the entire organism consists of one cell. In most fungi, plants, and animals, organisms may contain up to trillions of cells.
Cells are the units of synthesis and biological function. Various types of micro and large molecules are arranged to form cells and their organelles.
There are two types of creatures:
- Unicellular Organisms
It consists of individual cells such as bacteria and parasites.
It consists of many cells, such as fungi, plants and animals. The cell membrane is present in all cells. There are two types of cells: prokaryotic and eukaryotic cells. Therefore, according to this difference, creatures fall into two categories:
Creatures that do not have clearly defined nuclei are called prokaryotes. They have some organelles.
Organisms with well-defined nuclei are called eukaryotes. They have a large number of membrane organelles.
Several subcellular structures such as mitochondria have been studied; The structure and function of Golgi complexes, internal vessels, lattice structures, ribosomes, etc. have been studied. It became clear that the function of cells is achieved through these special structures equivalent to the organs of the body. These structures are called organelles.
The arrangement of organelles indicates the division of labor within the cell. Prokaryotes have a limited number and type of organelles in the cytoplasm. Membrane organelles in eukaryotes are many and varied. However, cell membranes are present in all cells, prokaryotic, or eukaryotic.
The cellular structure of the cell is called an organelle. These organelles are the mitochondria, the Golgi apparatus, the endoplasmic reticulum, the ribosome, and so on. These organelles perform different functions in the cell. Organelles are specially arranged in cells. Therefore, there is a division of labor within the unit.
6. The biological level of the individual and the entire system
Different organs and organ systems together form an individual or a whole being. The entire organism has some special properties. Therefore, each person seems to be different from the members of the same type. All systems in the organism coordinate with each other. For example, if a person continues to exercise, the muscle strength will increase. Its molecules need more oxygen. Therefore, the respiratory rate and heart rate increase.
The nervous system and the endocrine system are used to coordinate animals. On the other hand, some hormones in plants are involved in regulating long-term activity. The whole organism. It also illustrates the response to changes in the entire environment.
Extensive organizational levels
The broad organization is as follows:
Organisms with similar properties have the same number of chromosomes and can reproduce with each other.
When members of the same species are found in the same area, they are called groups of species.
Similar or similar species that live together under almost environmental conditions are called communities.
The area where living and non-living things are located is called the biosphere.
When living and non-living things are present in a specific area at the same time, living things and their environment exchange materials will affect each other. This system is called the ecosystem. The interaction between the living environment and the non-living environment in a specific region is called the ecosystem.
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