what are chromosomes made of biology

What is Chromosome?

In each cell’s nucleus, DNA molecules are packed together into long structures called chromosomes. Each chromosome is made of DNA that is bound tightly around a protein called histone, which gives it its shape.

Even under a microscope, you can’t see chromosomes in the nucleus of a cell that isn’t splitting. But during cell division, the DNA that makes up the chromosomes gets more rigid and can be seen under a microscope. Researchers have learned most of what they know about chromosomes by looking at them when cells divide.

The  each chromosome is made up of two parts, called “centromere,” that are connected by a point called the centromere. “P-arm” is the name for the short arm of a chromosome. “Q arm” is the name for the long arm of a chromosome. The form of a chromosome is based on where the centromere is on that chromosome. This can also be used to describe where a gene is.

What is the structure of A chromosome?


Structure of X and Y Chromosomes

In other parts of the body, chromosomes are the same shape and size (same pair), but the X and Y chromosomes are different.

The X chromosome is longer and has many more genes than the Y chromosome. Since none of the other genes on the X chromosome are found on the Y chromosome, the X gene is the most important. This means that almost all genes on X will be shown in men, even if they are only found in females. These genes are called “X-linked.” Y-linked genes are only found on the Y chromosome and are only produced in men. A sex-related gene is one that is on a genome related to sex.

There are about 1098 genes that are related to the X chromosome, but most of them don’t affect how a woman looks or acts. In fact, illnesses like hemophilia, Duchenne muscle dystrophy, and Fragile X syndrome are linked to a lot of other diseases. They cause red-green color blindness and are thought to be the most common genetic disease in guys. Male pattern baldness is also linked to genes that don’t have anything to do with sex.

The X chromosomes are big, but the Y chromosome only has 26 genes. Sixteen of these genes are in charge of keeping the cell healthy. Nine things are needed to make sperm, and if some of them are missing or broken, the number of sperm may be low or the man may not be able to have children. Male traits come from something called the SRY gene. Another gene called the SRY gene is turned on and controlled by the SRY gene on the non-sex. The SRY gene causes non-gonads to grow in the testes instead of in the ovaries.

Chromosome Function

A strange mix of genes from each sex can cause many diseases that only affect one sex. These diseases are usually not dangerous.

The National Library of Medicine says that Turner syndrome and trisomy X can be caused by abnormalities in women. When a woman only has one X chromosome instead of two, she is said to have Turner syndrome. Some of the symptoms are that the sex parts don’t develop properly, which can lead to infertility, small breasts, and not having periods. The chest was shaped like a shield, and the neck was big.

Trisomy X syndrome happens when a person has three X chromosomes instead of the usual two. Some of the signs of this condition are stretching, slow speech, early ovarian failure or abnormal ovulation, and weak muscle tone. However, many girls and women don’t have any of these signs.

Men can be harmed by Klinefelter syndrome. Some of the signs of this disease are enlarged breasts, height, height differences, impotence, and small penises.

See Also: