Four organic molecules make up all life on Earth. Organic molecules contain carbon and hydrogen atoms chemically attached to long chains, with carbon as the main chain and hydrogen atoms attached to carbon atoms. The ability of these atoms to interconnect allows the creation of countless life-beneficial compounds. All living things require four types of organic molecules: nucleic acids, proteins, sugars and fats; without any of these molecules, life will not exist.
Nucleic acids are DNA and RNA, or deoxyribonucleic acid and ribonucleic acid, respectively. It enables proteins to exist in almost every structure and perform almost all the functions of the body. DNA has a twisted ladder shape, while RNA has many different shapes, depending on its function. DNA is usually kept in the center of the cell or in the nucleus: RNA can reach the desired site throughout the cell.
The skeleton of both substances consists of mutual molecules of phosphate and sugar. The nucleotide bases constitute a “step” connected to the main chain. Among these two types of nucleic acids, the DNA is more stable than the RNA, so it is less likely to be damaged. Your genes are made up of DNA, and each gene provides a symbol for making a specific protein. DNA helps produce these proteins.
Protein is possibly the most versatile organic molecule, and it can form many structures and perform various functions in the body. The building blocks called amino acids to make up proteins. About 20 different amino acids combine to form all types of proteins on Earth. These amino acids have almost the same composition. The only difference is Group R. Each amino acid in group R is different and gives it uniqueness. When making a protein, a protein is combined with one amino acid at a time in the ribosome.
This composition can synthesize the protein. Proteins have four levels of structure: the primary structure is the binding of amino acids together. The secondary structure refers to the bending of certain areas within the protein. The triple structure is the ultimate three-dimensional appearance of a protein, and the quadruple structure consists of smaller protein units, chemically bound together to form larger proteins.
Carbohydrates contain the largest number of organic molecules in living organisms. Basically, carbohydrates are sugar; their origins can be traced back to photosynthesis, the process by which plants and other organisms use sunlight to convert carbon dioxide and water into food. The simplest sugar is glucose, a molecule that is used to feed various organisms, including humans.
Food sugar includes fructose in fruits, galactose in milk, maltose in vegetables, and sucrose in sugar. Starch in whole grains and vegetables is a complex carbohydrate consisting of simple molecular chains of glucose. Your body contains an enzyme called amylase, which breaks down carbohydrates into the food you eat in glucose, which cells can use as energy.
Fats (which may be known as fats) appear in your body in various forms and contain the most energy from all organic compounds. When your body burns fat as fuel, you get more energy than burning other organic molecules. Fats have multiple functions in the body and are found in the form of phospholipids and cholesterol, both of which are important components of cell membranes.
Wax provides a protective layer for plants and animals, hormones that indicate different functions in the body, vitamins that help different cell functions, and steroids, which are important in many physiological processes. Fats from animals are more viscous than fats from plants.
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