DNA molecules carry the genetic code to form organisms. Complex biological information lies in its complex structure, which is necessary to produce the proteins that make up all living organisms. Its found in the nucleus of every cell, tightly packed into large structures called chromosomes.
The complete library of genetic instructions contained in DNA is called a genome. During the reproduction process, this genetic information is copied and transmitted from parents to their offspring.
Basic Structure of DNA
DNA is an abbreviation for deoxyribonucleic acid, a term derived from the basic structure of molecules. It is a chemical building block, called nucleotides, a combination of nitrogen bases, sugars called deoxyribose and phosphate groups.
Its molecules are ladder-shaped and are converted into a helical configuration called a double helix. Nitrogen bases form ladder phases and are arranged in pairs, connected to each other by chemical bonding.
Replication of DNA
Four different types of nitrogen bases are found in DNA: adenine, thymine, guanine, and cytosine. The sequence of these bases contains genetic information, a bit like a four-letter letter. Its molecule can replicate itself and disseminate its biological instructions by splitting the middle part into two single strands, like opening a zip.
Due to the nature of their chemical bonding, they only couple with thymine, whereas guanine pairs only with cytosine. Therefore, every single strand serves as a similar template for the creation of a new molecule (a copy of the original DNA).
DNA and protein synthesis
The information contained in the DNA is encoded as a nucleotide sequence, which contains instructions for protein preparation. The nucleotides in the DNA strand form a long chain called a gene.
Each gene contains information that can be translated into a protein-forming amino acid sequence by the cell’s protein-making machine. Each gene encodes a specific protein, and the organism’s genes contain instructions for all the different proteins it would need to make.
Heredity and DNA
All the instructions needed to collect an organism are contained in its DNA. The amount of information in the human genetic code is staggering. In the form of books, it will fill a small library. It is a treasure trove of instructions to synthesize about 30,000 different proteins, as well as other genetic information including specific behaviors and trends required for the reproduction and reproduction of organisms.
If they were amplified, the strand in each human cell would be approximately 2 m long. The human genome consists of approximately 3 billion nucleotide base pairs, including more than 20,000 different genes.