Two types of plant factors (internal factors) and environmental factors (external factors) both affect how plants Absorption of Water through their roots.
These factors include soil factors (exogenous factors), such as soil temperature, the solubility (osmotic potential) of the soil solution, soil aeration (concentration 02 and carbon dioxide accumulation), soil water, and there are activities that absorb roots, transpiration, and metabolism effectively. Root cells are plant agents (internal factors) that help soil roots absorb water.
Soil factors affecting water absorption
Although weather conditions may also affect water absorption, soil conditions are usually the factors that limit water absorption: These factors include:
1. Soil temperature
The soil temperature affects the rate of water absorption. Plants that grow in low-temperature soil absorb less water. At lower temperatures, due to the slow metabolism of root cells, the growth of roots is inhibited, the permeability of the protozoa to water decreases, the water becomes more viscous and its fluidity decreases. Very high temperatures are lethal to cells. The optimum temperature at which maximum absorption occurs is 20 to 30 ° C.
2. Soil aeration
Soil ventilation is one of the most important factors for absorbing water. It is generally noted that in well-ventilated soil, the water absorption rate is higher, and in less ventilated soil (such as submerged soil), the leaves of the plant fall (wither).
Since the airspace between the soil particles is occupied by water, the root system cannot breathe and die. Insufficient oxygen deficiency can cause slow root growth and cell metabolism. Reducing metabolic activity will seriously affect salt buildup, which reduces the water potential of cell fluids and causes a potential gradient of water.
The accumulation of carbon dioxide increases the viscosity of the protoplasm, which reduces the permeability of water, Thus, the rate of water absorption is obstructed.
3. The soluble potential of the soil solution
The dissolved or potential osmotic potential of the soil solution is the driving force for the production of the potential gradient of water, which is responsible for absorbing water by the root system.
Therefore, if the aqueous solution of the aqueous solution is more negative (less) than the root cell juice, then the water will travel from the plant cells without absorbing them. This is the reason that most plants cannot grow in high salt soil. However, halophytes (plants that grow in saline regions) tolerate high salt concentrations in soil solutions.
4. Available water
It is not easy to obtain water from plants above the level of retention of field water and under a constant wilt rate. Therefore, the maximum rate of water absorption between these two quantities.
If the water increases to exceed the field capacity, the soil ventilation will be affected, which leads to a decrease in the absorption rate, and a decrease in the water level below the permanent wilt rate indicating the depletion of available water, thus ending the absorption process.
Plant factors affecting water absorption
In addition to environmental factors, some plant factors (internal factors) also affect the root absorption of water and dissolved minerals int. These include:
1. Root system
Having large root systems and sufficient root hair helps plants absorb water-soluble minerals effectively into the soil. In the grass system of highly similar fibers in the dicotyledons, the deeper root system helps absorb water and increase its absorption rate.
Hair root plays an important role in absorbing water. These walls are thin, so water enters the soil solution more efficiently. Root hair also increases the absorption space. The roots of most nude seeds are infected with fungi present in the soil and form mycorrhiza. Fungi help absorb water from the soil.
The rate of water absorption is almost equal to the transpiration rate. At higher transpiration rates, the absorption rate also increases. Sweating the aerial parts of the plant will lead to transpiration, which causes the water column to be strained in the oblast and plastid. This draft force is transferred to the soil solution and causes a potential gradient of water. This gradient helps absorb water.
3. Root cell Metabolism activity
Although there are questions about the use of energy to absorb water, metabolism and water absorption are closely related. Factors that inhibit or obstruct metabolism also affect the rate of absorption. These factors include poor ventilation and use of respiratory depressants such as potassium salts
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