What is Biology in Science Define Its Branches and Fields

Biology is the scientific study of life and its many diverse aspects, including how organisms are created and how they develop and change across time and space.

What is Biology?

The study of living things is known as biology. This open field of study allows you to focus on whichever aspect of life impresses you the most.

Research at the molecular level on topics including the immune system, disease mechanisms, and physiological processes is one option; broader studies of the environment, ecosystems, and biodiversity are also available.

Biological Science are include:

  • Biology
  • Botany
  • Genetics
  • Microbiology 
  • Molecular Biology, Biophysics & Biochemistry
  • Zoology 
What is Biology

Branches of Biology

There are several specialized fields within biology. These are just a few examples of certain areas of biology:

Anatomy: The study of animal structure, especially the human body, is known as anatomy.

Astrobiology: The study of how life in space affects organisms and the hunt for alien life forms is known as astrobiology.

Biochemistry:  is the study of biomolecules and their roles and transformations in living systems, including the structure and function of cellular components such proteins, carbohydrates, lipids, and nucleic acids.

Bioclimatology:  is the study of how different climates affect the growth and dispersion of living things, such as plants, animals, and people.

Bioengineering:  sometimes known as biological engineering, is an interdisciplinary field of study that applies engineering principles to the study of biological systems and processes.

Biogeography: is the study of current and historical trends in the distributions of plant and animal species throughout the globe.

Bioinformatics: is the study of how computers may be put to service in the biological sciences, most notably in the storing and retrieval of genetic information.

Mathematical biology: often known as biomathematics, is a branch of science that applies mathematical concepts and methods to the study of biological systems. It’s useful for both experimental and theoretical work in the field of biology.

Biophysics: sometimes known as biological physics, is a branch of multidisciplinary research that brings physical science concepts and techniques to bear on biological problems.

Biotechnology: is the branch of applied science that uses biological systems, live creatures, or their derivatives to create or alter goods and procedures.

Botany: Studying plants scientifically is known as botany.

Cell biology: refers to the study of living organisms at the cellular or molecular level. The cell’s life cycle, division, and apoptosis are only few of the many aspects of cellular biology that are being investigated.

Chronobiology: is the study of how time affects living things.

Conservation Biology:  Conservation With the objective of reducing the extinction catastrophe and preserving biodiversity, biologists study and implement plans to preserve habitats and safeguard species.

Cryobiology:  is the study of how living things react to very cold conditions.

Developmental Biology: The study of how an organism grows from a fertilised egg to an adult is known as developmental biology.

Ecology: or the study of plant and animal communities in relation to their physical surroundings

Ethno biology:  examines how people have always interacted with their surroundings, both historically and now.

Evolutionary biology: the branch of biology that investigates how and why different species have developed through time.

Freshwater Biology: Life and ecosystems in freshwater environments are the focus of Freshwater Biology.

Genetics: is the study of heredity and how traits are passed down through families as well as how and why traits might vary amongst closely related creatures.

Geobiology: is the study of the relationships between living things and the physical world.

Immunobiology:  is the study of the body’s immune system, including its components and how they work together, as well as laboratory procedures involving the interaction of antigens with particular antibodies, self-versus-non-self recognition, and the determination of these factors.

Marine biology: or the study of marine organisms and their environments.

Medicine: or the study of health care and its promotion, diagnosis, and treatment

Microbiology: The study of microscopic organisms and their influence on larger species is known as microbiology.

Molecular biology: is the study of the fundamental macromolecules of life, such nucleic acids and proteins, and how they work in the cell reproduction and genetic information transmission processes.

Mycology: Fungi research is known as mycology.

Neurobiology: The study of the nervous system and its anatomy, physiology, and disease is known as neurobiology.

Paleobiology: is the study of fossils of plants, animals, and other species to reconstruct the diversity of life that existed in the past.

Parasitology : An examination of parasites and parasitism is the focus of parasitology.

Pathology: is the study of disease, including how it begins, progresses, and ends.

Pharmacology : The science of preparing and administering medications and synthetic treatments is known as pharmacology.

physiology : The study of the structure and function of living creatures is called physiology.

Protozoology: The study of protists is known as protistology.

Psychobiology: is the study of how the brain and nervous system influence mental and behavioural processes.

Toxicology: is the study of poisons, both natural and synthetic, and the harmful consequences they have on living organisms.

virology : The study of viruses is called virology.

Zoology: refers to the biological study of animals and animal life, including how they are put together and how they change through time.

Ethology: The study of animal behaviour is known as ethology.

Entomology : Scientific research of insects is known as entomology.

Ichthyology : The study of fishes, or “ichthyology”

Herpetology: or the study of herps and amps

Ornithology: The study of birds, often known as ornithology.

Mammalogy : The study of animals, or mammalogy.

Primatology: The study of primates, or primatology.

Different Fields of biology?

Students aspiring to leadership roles in the future must be well-versed in the fields that are shaping the world today. The success of scientific projects may be improved with up-to-date and accurate biological information. Students in several disciplines will benefit from this. Several potential directions for undergraduate research in biology are listed below.

The field of biology and profession

Medicine / Surgery

The group of doctors who work to find and treat illnesses in people. Parts of the body may be fixed surgically. Kidney stone removal, liver transplants, etc. are all examples of such procedures. Both of these disciplines are covered in the same undergraduate degree programme (MBBS), after which students specialise in Biological Science.


Professionals in this field research fishing and fish farming. Experts in fisheries are employed by these bureaus. It aids in raising both the standard and quantity of fish harvests. A Bachelor’s or Master’s in Ecology and Fisheries is required to study this field in Pakistan.


Agriculture also include animal husbandry. Farmers invest time and energy into the breeding and feeding of domesticated animals and plants in order to supplement their own diets with the products. Several colleges and universities began offering agricultural programmes after students graduated from high school biology programmes.

Animal husbandry

Keeping and rearing domesticated animals is a subset of agriculture (livestock). After graduating from high school with a biology degree, students may pursue vocational training in livestock farming.


Gardening skills are required. Florists and orchardists who work tirelessly to advance the state of the art in plant breeding. High school graduates interested in biology may enter this field.


Creating and managing for various farms is part of this. In some farms, for instance, livestock is raised using methods of animal husbandry; these animals provide a higher quality protein and milk supply. Eggs and chicks are farmed and produced on poultry farms. Similarly, several fruit-bearing plants are cultivated in fruit orchards. Students with a background in agriculture, animal science, or fisheries will find this major useful.


Experts in the field of forestry care for existing forests and provide policymakers recommendations for expanding forest cover. Several colleges and universities now provide advanced biology education above the level of a Bachelor of Science in Botany or Zoology.


New to the field of biology, this is the most contemporary undergraduate concentration. Scientists in the biotechnology industry study and cultivate microorganisms to create useful goods. After completing an advanced degree in biology or a Bachelor of Science in botany or zoology, the institution offers biotechnology courses.

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