Kidney stones (also called calculus, nephrolithiasis or urolithiasis). Which are made up of particles of minerals and salts inside the kidneys?
Diet, being overweight, certain medical conditions, and some supplements and medications are many causes of kidney stones. Kidney stones can affect any part of the urethra from the kidneys to the bladder. Usually, when urine is concentrated, stones form, from which the minerals crystallize and clump together.
Passing kidney stones can be very painful, but if they are discovered on time, they usually do not cause permanent damage. Depending on your situation, you may only need to take painkillers and drink lots of water to pass kidney stones. In other cases (for example, if a stone enters the urinary tract, is associated with a urinary tract infection or causes complications), surgery may be required.
Kidney stones usually do not cause symptoms until it seeps into your kidneys or enters the ureter (the tube connecting the kidneys and bladder). If it remains in the ureter, it can block the flow of urine and cause renal inflammation and urethral spasm, which can be very painful. At that time, you may experience the following symptoms and signs:
- Severe pain in the sides and back under the ribs
- Pain spreads to lower abdomen and groin
- Pain fluctuates and intensity fluctuates
- Pain or burning sensation while urinating
Other signs and symptoms may include:
- Pink, red or brown urine
- Smelly or smelly urine
- Requires frequent urination, urinating more or less frequently than normal
- nausea and vomiting
- Fever and chills when infected
Stones move in your urethra, the pain caused by the stones may change (for example, moving to another location or increasing in intensity).
It usually does not have a single obvious cause, although several factors may increase the risk of disease.
Kidney stones can form when urine contains more crystal-forming substances (such as calcium, oxalic acid, and uric acid) than crystal substances. At the same time, your urine may lack substances that prevent the crystals from sticking together, creating an ideal environment for kidney stones to form.
Types of Kidney Stones
Knowing the type of Stones can help determine its cause and provide clues about how to reduce the risk of having more. If possible, if you pass a kidney stone, try to save it so that you can bring it to the doctor for analysis.
Types of kidney stones include:
Calcium stones: Most kidney stones are calcium stones, usually in the form of calcium oxalate. Oxalate is a daily substance produced by the liver or absorbed from the diet. Some fruits and vegetables, nuts, and chocolate are high in oxalate.
Dietary Factors: High doses of vitamin D, intestinal bypass surgery and many metabolic abnormalities can increase the concentration of calcium or oxalic acid in the urine.
Calcium stones: can also appear as calcium phosphate. This type of stones is more common in metabolic conditions such as renal tubular acidosis. It may also be related to some medications used to treat migraines or epilepsy, such as topiramate (Topamax, Trencadie XR, Qdexy XR).
Struvite stones: Forms after urinary tract infection. These stones can grow quickly and become very large, sometimes with few symptoms or warnings.
Uric acid stones: Uric acid stones can form in people who lose too much fluid due to chronic diarrhea or malfunction, people who eat a high-protein diet, and people who have diabetes or metabolic syndrome. Certain genetic factors may also increase your risk of uric acid stones.
Cystine stones: These stones are formed in people with a genetic disease called cystinuria, due to which the kidneys excrete too many specific amino acids.
Kidney Stones Treatment
Mostly stones eventually pass through the kidney through the ureters and the bladder, and eventually through the urethra themselves. However, kidney stones usually require treatment to control pain when they pass. Adding enough fluid helps to pass kidney stones, but even with the intake of too much fluid, most people need some kind of medicine to control the pain.