Hormones act as your body’s chemical messengers. They travel through the bloodstream in your body, such as tissues and organs. They work slowly over time and affect a variety of processes, including
- Growth and development
- Metabolism – how your body gets energy from the foods you eat
- Sexual function
The endocrine gland is a specialized cell group that produces hormones. The main endocrine glands are the pituitary, pineal, thymus, thyroid, adrenal and pancreas. In addition, males produce hormones in the testes, and females produce hormones in the ovaries.
Hormones are very powerful. Only very small amounts can cause massive changes in cells and even the entire body. This is why too much or too little of a certain hormone can be serious. Laboratory tests can measure hormone levels in your blood, urine, or saliva. If you have symptoms of hormone disorder, your healthcare provider may perform these tests. Home pregnancy tests are similar — they will test pregnancy hormones in your urine.
Types Of Hormones
The growth hormone is a protein whose main structure has been fully established for human and bovine forms of hormones. It can be widely distributed in bitter animals (jaw-bearing vertebrae), where it is necessary to maintain growth, but it has not been determined to be present in millipedes (invertebrates without jaws). The physical and chemical properties of growth hormones vary from species to species and are related to significant differences in biological activity. However, in fact, only part of the molecule is responsible for its biological activity, which can be lost up to 25% without a performance reduction.
Prolactin is a protein hormone that triggers and maintains milk secretion in female mammals. The mammary glands have previously been prepared for this function through the action of other hormones. In female mice, prolactin also maintains the secretion of the luteinizing hormone, which is formed by the corpus lutein (the endocrine gland of the ovary). Therefore, prolactin is a gonadotropin and its target is the endocrine glands. Furthermore, the molecular structures of prolactin and growth hormone are similar, which may explain why they show some overlap in their biological properties. In particular, the administration of prolactin promotes some growth in many terrestrial vertebrates. The human growth hormone has urinary properties such as prolactin.
Thyroid-stimulating hormone (also known as a thyroid-stimulating hormone or TSH) regulates the thyroid through a feedback relationship similar to ACTH. The thyroid-stimulating hormone increases the thyroid’s ability to secrete hormones. If the effect lasts longer, it will cause an increase in the number of cells (proliferation) and the size of the glands. One result of a hyperactive thyroid in the human body is swollen eyes (raised eyes). Although it is believed that this is due to the effect of a substance that produces unique exophthalmos, the reason for this is still unclear. Although this substance is closely related to thyrotrophic, it can be chemically isolated. The thyroid-stimulating hormone may not be available in Ranganathan. It is a glycoprotein, namely, a protein that binds carbohydrates. It is estimated that its molecular weight is about 26,000 to 30,000 in mammals. When the hormonal preparation of one species is tested on another species, the degree of response obtained will vary. Like prolactin, this indicates that it has molecular development.
Follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH) is a type of gonadotropin. It is related to the activity of the gonad or sexual organs, which are the endocrine glands and the source of eggs and sperm. FSH stimulates the development of graphene follicles in the ovaries of female mammals, which are eggs with small vesicles. In males, it promotes the development of testicular tubes and differentiation of sperm. Like thyroid-stimulating hormone, FSH is a glycoprotein with an estimated molecular weight (in humans) of 41,000 to 43,000. The role of FSH will be further discussed in the Reproductive System Hormones section below.
Luteinizing hormone (LH; also known as an interstitial cell-stimulating hormone, or ICSH) is another gonadotropin, a glycoprotein with a molecular weight of 26,000 in the human body. In female mammals, it promotes the conversion of graphene follicles into the corpus luteum (endocrine gland) after the release of the egg (ovulation). In men, LH promotes the growth of interstitial tissue (Leydig cells) of the testes, thus promoting the secretion of the male sex hormone testosterone. This feature may be associated with FSH. The interrelation of LH and FSH makes it difficult to determine the existence of two different hormones, especially since both are glycoproteins. Although the presence of two hormones has been established in mammals, the status of lower vertebrates has not yet been determined. There is no doubt that all the vertebrates have gonadotropin activity in the pituitary gland. However, although similar effects of FSH and LH can be detected, it is unclear whether there are always two different hormones.
Melanocyte-stimulating hormone (MSH; or internecine) is secreted by the middle pars of the pituitary gland and regulates the color change of animals by promoting the concentration of pigment particles in pigment cells (monocytes and chromosomes) in the skin of the lower vertebrae. MSH works with the nervous system of bonefish and reptiles. Although birds and mammals secrete hormones, even in species where intermediate pare cannot be distinguished in the adenohypophysis, no response has been reported concerning physiological color changes. As we all know, MSH affects the behavior of mammals and the total pigment in their skin. After taking large doses of the hormone, it will turn black in the human body. However, this change is currently caused by a change in the total pigment volume. This morphological change is called morphological color change, which is in contrast to the physical changes that occur in the skin of lower vertebrates.