Spermatogenesis: Describe its Process and Function
The production process of sperm and egg (gametes) is called gametes (spermatogenesis and oogenesis). Gametogenesis involves two rounds of meiotic cell division, in which a diploid cell forms 4 haploid cells.
This figure shows the process of spermatogenesis. The germinal hair (glossy epithelium) of seminal tubules contains spermatogenic cells and supporting cells. (Click here to know about helper cells)
Spermatozoa cells divide through mitosis, then form gametes through meiosis, and mature into sperm through the process of spermatogenesis. Generally, developing sperm cells remain attached by cytoplasmic bridges until they form mature spermatozoa.
The testis continuously produces sperm cells, but not all areas of the semi-duct produce sperm cells at the same time. It takes up to 74 days for an immature germ cell to reach final maturation, and intermittent seasonal periods occur during this growth process.
Secondary sperm cells must still be mature to fertilize the egg. Maturation requires some changes in the shape and form of sperm cells. The atomic material becomes more condensed and takes an oval shape. This area develops in the head of the sperm. The head is covered by a cap called the acrosome, which is important to help sperm enter the egg.
The tail is attached to the other end of the head. The tail comes from the cytoplasm of secondary sperm cells. In mature sperm, it is a bunch of thin filaments that push the sperm through their uninterrupted motion. After the sperm matures, they will be transported through long thin semolina tubes and stored in the epididymis of the testes until they are ready to release the male.
Spermatogenesis begins at the bottom of the semiconductor tube. Gradually, cells enter the tube and move until mature sperm reach the lumen, where mature sperm accumulate. Splitting is performed simultaneously, if the tube is partially cut, different maturation stages will be observed. A group of cells of different maturing states is produced at the same time, called spermatogenic waves.