Mitochondria: Function, Structure, & Facts


Mitochondria are membrane-bound organelles (mitochondria, singular) that produce most of the chemical energy needed to drive cell biochemical reactions. The chemical energy produced by mitochondria is stored in small molecules called adenosine triphosphate (ATP). Mitochondria have their own small chromosomes. Typically, mitochondrial and mitochondrial DNA is inherited only from the mother.



Mitochondria are the site of cellular ATP synthesis. Therefore, the number of mitochondria found in the cell can be a good indicator of the metabolic activity of the cell. Metabolically active cells (such as liver cells) will have multiple mitochondria.

Mitochondria also help maintain the cell’s internal environment. :

Store caspases responsible for triggering apoptosis.
Can store calcium temporarily, which promotes calcium homeostasis.
In brown adipose tissue, an alternative function is to use the electron transport chain to generate heat in mitochondria.


Mitochondrial has an inner membrane and an outer membrane, between which there is a membrane space. The outer membrane contains a protein called porcine, which allows ions to move in and out of the mitochondrion. Enzymes involved in fatty acid elongation and adrenaline oxidation can also be found on the outer membrane.

The space inside the inner mitochondrial membrane is called the matrix, which contains the Krebs (TCA) enzyme and fatty acid cycle, as well as DNA, RNA, ribosomes, and calcium particles.

The inner membrane contains various types of enzymes. It contains ATP synthase, which produces ATP in the substrate and transfers proteins that regulate the entry and exit of metabolites from the substrate.

The inner membrane is arranged in a cr shape to increase the surface area available for energy production through oxidative phosphorylation.


The mitochondrion is membrane-bound organs, but they are bound to two different membranes. This is very unusual for intercellular organisms. These membranes act as Mitochondrion, which is essential for energy production. This energy is produced by passing chemical substances into the cell (ie being converted). And this conversion process will produce energy in the form of ATP because phosphate is a high-energy bond that can provide energy for other reactions in the cell. So mitochondria aim to produce this energy.
Some isolated cells have different amounts of mitochondrion because they require more energy. Therefore, for example, muscles have many mitochondria, the liver also possesses them, the kidneys have a certain degree, and the brain also depends on the energy produced by mitochondria to a certain degree. Therefore, if there is a defect in mitochondria functioning normally, your muscles, brain and sometimes kidneys will also experience symptoms. Many different types of symptoms. And we cannot know all the various diseases caused by mitochondrial dysfunction.

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